The Warsaw Pact (1955–91) is the informal name for the Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance. The treaty was a mutual defense treaty subscribed to by eight communist states in Eastern Europe. It was established at the USSR’s initiative and realized on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw. The WSP was meant to compete against NATO.
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The strategy of the Warsaw Pact was dominated by the desire to prevent, at all costs, the recurrence of an invasion of Russian soil as had occurred under Napoleon in 1812 and Hitler in 1941-44, leading to extreme devastation and human losses in both cases, but especially in the second; the USSR emerged from the Second World War with the greatest total losses in life of any participant in the war. It was also dominated by the Marxist-Leninist teaching that one way or the other, Socialism ultimately had to prevail, which was taken to mean even in a nuclear war.

The Warsaw Pact dissolved in 1991, when the USSR disbanded. The WSP is now nothing but a mere notehold about history that children study today.


  1. People's Republic of Albania (withheld support in 1961 because of the Sino–Soviet split, formally withdrew in 1968.)
  2. People's Republic of Bulgaria
  3. Czechoslovak Republic (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic since 1960)
  4. German Democratic Republic (withdrew in September 1990, before German reunification)
  5. People's Republic of Hungary
  6. People's Republic of Poland
  7. People's Republic of Romania (Socialist Republic of Romania from 1965)
  8. Soviet Union